CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.. 5
1.1 Background of the Study. 5
1.2 Statement of Research Problem.. 6
1.3 Research Questions. 6
1.4 Aim and Objectives. 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses. 8
1.6 Significance of the Study. 9
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study. 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW… 11
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH.. 13
3.1 Preamble. 13
3.1 Research Design. 13
3.3 Research Variables. 14
3.4 Population for the Study and Population Frame. 15
3.4.1 Research Area. 15
3.4.1 Target Population. 16
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Frame. 16
3.5.1 Sampling Technique. 16
3.5.2 Data Collection for the Study. 17
3.5.3 Questionnaire Survey. 18
3.5.4 Questionnaire Design. 19
3.5.5 Validity of the Research. 19
3.5.6 Reliability of Instrument. 20
3.5.7 Data Coding and Data Entry. 20
3.5.8 Measurement Scale. 20
3.5.9 Limitations of the Research. 21
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS. 22
4.1 Data Analysis. 22
4.2 Expected Results. 22
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION/RECOMMENDATION.. 23
CHAPTER 6: WORK PLAN AND BUDGET ESTIMATES. 24
6.1 Work Plan. 24
6.2 Budget Estimates. 25
There isn’t much literature on the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools in Riyard, Saudi Arabia. though the government has instituted a lot of processes and policies to enable that children with hearing impairments are offered an equal chance to access education facilities and has gone ahead to provide most of the necessary facilities and skills for all the involved parties including teachers, parents, children with hearing impairments, the normal children in the mainstream institutions that offer those opportunities for the children with hearing impairments, the government officials involved in the area of education for such special children as well as the society and other stakeholders, no much research has been carried out or documented to indicate how effective the program has been (Banks 1994; Yetman 2000; Al-Hilawani 2003). This factor has therefore left a lot of assumptions on the success of the program without addressing the main challenges that have been facing the involved parties, which over time, could have resulted to lowered effectiveness of the program (Clark 2009; Blatchford 2005).
There is therefore a need to carry out a study and document the information obtained concerning the effectiveness of the program of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools as well as determining the challenges that are being experienced during the implementation of the program (Kluwin & Stinson 1993; Deusen-Phillips, Goldin-Meadow, Miller 2001). This will also help in formulation of conclusions on the effectiveness of the program and its challenges as well as coming up with recommendations on the most effective strategies that the involved parties may employ to ensure the success of the program (Cowley 2001; Higgins 1990).
The process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools in Riyard, Saudi Arabia experiences significant challenges to teachers, deaf children, normal children, the government, and other stakeholders (Kluwin & Stewart 2001; Wilson 1998).
To address the challenges, the current study is a proposed social research that draws on a quantitative research paradigm where the quantitative paradigm “is an inquiry into a social or human problem, based on testing a theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analyzed with statistical procedures, in order to determine whether the predictive generalizations of the theory hold true” (Cresswell, 1994). This paradigm seeks to establish concrete answers to the research question while seeking for viable and concrete solutions to the challenges (Harlan 1984).
The study will be designed and framed to answer the following questions:
- Has the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools been effective?
- What are the challenges experienced by teachers, deaf children, normal children, the government and other stakeholders during the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools?
- What are the social implications of the challenges experienced by teachers, deaf children, normal children, the government and other stakeholders during the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools?
- What strategies may be used to ensure effective integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools?
The aim of this study is to establish the different challenges that are experienced by teachers, deaf children, normal children, the government and other stakeholders during the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools (Miles & Huberman 1984; Kluwin & Stewart 2001).
- To assess the challenges that are experienced by all the involved parties during the process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- To determine the different ways applied to ensure integration of the children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- To provide recommendations on effective ways that may be applied during integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- Null Hypothesis
The Null Hypotheses for the research will be:
- The process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools has not been effective
- There are no significant challenges experienced by the involved parties during the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- There are no significant social implications of the challenges experienced by the involved parties during the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypotheses for the research will hence be:
- There are significant challenges experienced by the involved parties during the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- There are no significant social implications of the challenges experienced by the involved parties during the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools
- The process of integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools has been effective
The government has formulated policies and provided funds to ensure integration of those with hearing impairments into mainstream schools. The main belief has been that if a person with any disability is empowered at an early age, then they may be able to easily compete fairly with the other normal members of the society at a later age (Marschark 1997). Therefore, though s far the government has succeeded in even integrating those with hearing and sight impairments into mainstream high schools and universities, most of the focus has been on integration of children into mainstream primary schools so as to offer them a foundation for their empowerment right from an early age (Gikow & Kucharski 1987; Olivia 2004).
There has therefore been establishment of different institutions all over the country aimed at integration of the children with hearing impairments into the mainstream primary schools. This program has been very successful, though not without its challenges. There has therefore been noted a lot of pressure on the teachers, the children with hearing impairments, their normal classmates, parents, government institutions as well as other stakeholders (Pressley & McCormick 1995; Ramsey 1997).
This notwithstanding, no much research has been carried out into this issue so as to determine the success of this program especially with a focus on its challenges and how such challenges have been addressed.
This study is therefore aimed at determining how effective this program has been taking into consideration the main challenges to all the involved parties, the impact of such challenges on the success of the program as well as the social implication of such challenges. The study will take a statistical approach in coming up with conclusions on the effectiveness as well as formulating recommendations on effective strategies of the program (Albertini, Lang & Marschark 2002).
This study will be a survey of the mainstream schools in Riyadh, mainly focusing on the different challenges of integrating the children with hearing impairments into these mainstream schools (Livingston 1997). The study will hence consider a sample of the mainstream schools offering the program and then will use the different parties in these schools as its subjects. Other subjects that will be considered for the study will be from the government education offices as well as from parents that may be accessed and who have children with hearing impairments in the mainstream schools (Klugh 1986).
In this study, primary data will be collected from the sample population and used for analysis so as to answer the research questions and meet the research objectives.
The study will not go very deep into the issue but will collect information on the challenges of this program from different subjects and this information will be deemed efficient to provide the required data for statistical analysis and hence offering conclusions that will meet the research objectives and answer the research answers (Klugh 1986).
The study will extend over a period of three months, one of the months being for data collection.
The government of Saudi Arabia has for a long time shown a lot of concern on its citizens who have different disabilities. The government has therefore set aside funds aimed at ensuring that all its members with any physical disabilities is catered for and in as much as possible offered an equal opportunity in all the activities that they need to engage in especially in the areas of basic needs, employment, access to government and public resources, security and resource allocation among other factors (Yetman 2000; Al-Khashrami 1995).
One of the main ways in which the government has demonstrated its success in catering for its citizens has been through formulation of policies aimed at ensuring all its members with disabilities are offered special opportunities and treated as equal citizens. Mainly, the government has offered resources to aid all those with disabilities into moving on with life with less struggles (Jallon 1977). One such way has been through establishment of institutions specific to the different forms of disabilities within its population. These institutions have been established to cater for the disabled and empower them into living just like the rest of the normal citizens. This has hence offered opportunities for those with hearing, sight and physical impairments (Erting 1994; Knight & Swanwick 1999).
One of the disabilities that the government has put a lot of focus on has been the hearing impairments. Over the history of Saudi Arabia, since the time of King Abdulaziz’s unification of the country in 1932 and the subsequent establishment of special schools for those with hearing and sight impairments, the government has opened up institutions in different regions so as to cater for the special needs of those with such challenges (Luetke-Stahlman 1998; Powers 2001).
Over the recent past, the government has formulated a policy aimed at reducing instances of secluding those with disabilities into special institutions and enabling them to access facilities and resources in the mainstream institutions, especially in the education sector (Casale, Forsythe & Troiano 2004). There has been a lot of effort by the government to integrate those with such challenges into mainstream educational institutions so as to allow them to access the educational facilities, skills and experience that other normal members of the society are accessing (King 2001; Brelje 1999). For those with hearing impairments, a program aimed at integrating them into mainstream schools was first instituted at Riyadh in 1964 and later on different mainstream schools followed suit in trying to integrate such children into mainstream schools. Residential schools for those with hearing impairments were also established so as to cater for those who had a high hearing loss as well as a high IQ count (SIL International, 2007, pp. 51; Blatchford 2005).
The study seeks to collect data from subjects who will be identified as the main parties in the program of integrating children with hearing impairments into the mainstream schools (Lane, Hoffmeister & Bahan 1996). The collected data will then be used to meet the research objective of identifying the challenges faced during the implementation of the study. Further, the analysis of the data will answer the research questions and help determine the authenticity of the formulated hypothesis and finally help in formulation of recommendations on the strategies that may help overcome the identified challenges hence making the program more effective (Davis 1990; Kluwin, Moores & Gonter-Gaustad 1992).
A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information (Kvale, 1996). It therefore provides the framework for the collection and analysis of data. The design in this study will start by analyzing the research questions and focus the design work and address the issues generated by the questionnaire (Weisel 1998). In order to address the above raised issues, it will be necessary for the researcher to start with the identification of the various aspects that play a significant role in providing the answers (Myers, Well & Lorch 2010). The initial identification will be on various dependent variables and subjects of measurement. Tools for collection of data will be identified. In order to achieve the intended objectives, research tools will be designed to capture information points for data collection (Triola, 2009; Fageeh 2003).
There are various variables that will be included in the study. The main variables would be in two categories, demographic data and data to answer the research questions. Also, the data for answering the research questions will be categorized into close-ended questions and closed questions which will be in levels for determination of the level of the variable being considered (Sacks 1989; Albertini, Lang & Marschark 2002).
The main research variables for which data will be collected and analyzed will include:
- Family history of deafness
- Age when hearing loss was detected
- Hearing complaints
- Speech problems
- Rate of using hearing aids
- Benefits of using hearing aids
- Difference between studying in special schools and studying in mainstream schools
- Number of students with hearing disabilities in the school
- Ration of normal children to those with hearing impairments
- Main challenges to teachers
- Main challenges to those with hearing disabilities
- Main challenges to the fellow normal classmates
- Main challenges to the administration
- Main challenges to government officials
- Main challenges to parents
- What may be done to improve the program
These variables will be included in the questionnaires and will have values that will be used for collecting data pertaining to them so as to analyze them and hence test the research hypothesis formulated for the study.
This study will be carried out in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. This is one area with a lot of mainstream schools that are implementing the program of integrating children with hearing impairments into their systems. It is also the region in which this program was first established and also the one in which the effects of this program have been most visible (Frasier 1996).
Since this study is mainly concerned with the challenges of the program, this region is the best for the study as the schools found in this region have run the program for a long time and hence have enough information on such challenges (Hairston 1994; Sacks 1989).
The main population of the study will be the different parties in the mainstream primary schools with a program to integrate children with hearing impairments in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. The subjects will include children with the hearing impairments, normal children in the schools, teachers, school administration, government officials in the education department as well as the parents with children in those schools (Hairston 1994; Bauman 2008).
The area is quite convenient to the researcher due to its proximity, good communication network as well as presence of a sample population that can easily understand and interpret questionnaires used by researcher. This area has a large population of mainstream primary schools offering the program of integrating children with hearing impairments into their system (Lippmann, Cohen, Schlesinger, 2003).
This study will be a survey of the mainstream primary schools in Riyadh offering the program of focus. The main sampling technique that will be used will be a survey in which the list of all the mainstream primary schools offering the program will be obtained and then a sample of this population of schools will be obtained. Also, the main regional education offices will be considered for the study.
The main technique that will be utilized for obtaining the sample of the schools and subsequently the subjects that will be considered for the study will be convenience sampling. Though this method is a non-probability method, it will be more convenient since it will reduce on the cost as well as ensure that the information obtained is consistent with the requirements of the study. The population to be considered will also be large and sparsely distributed while there will be a limitation in available time and resources, hence the convenience method will be the best to apply for the study (Al Hilawani 2000).
Since a large sample size will be considered for all the different groups of subjects, then information obtained will be deemed unbiased and will hence be efficient for meeting the research objectives (Al-Hilawani 2003).
Research instruments are methods or tools used for the purpose of collecting information or data. Face to face interviews and use of semi-structured questions will be the most viable tools for collecting information in this research. Questionnaires will also be developed and distributed among the selected population. Once the questionnaires are filled and collected they will be subjected to analytical treatment and results reported (Kvale 1996).
Before the interview starts, the researcher will use an informed consent note to introduce himself to the place he intends to carry out the research. First, a letter requesting permission to access the subjects in the target areas will be issued and then on approval to use the area for the study, a reconnaissance will be carried out to familiarize with the target group. For the questionnaires to be administered, shortest time would have to be used from one place to the other depending on the distances between the school and the other places to be visited. However quality time per interviewee would be very necessary in order to achieve quality results. The researcher will therefore need to hire research assistants to help in the collection of data (Kvale 1996).
For information to be obtained from the parents, the researcher will seek for information on a date for a parents’ meeting and then conduct the interview to fill in the questionnaires on the willing participants.
The main tools of collecting data that will be used for the study will be questionnaires. The main methods of administering the questionnaires to the subjects will be through telephone interviews, issuing of the questionnaires and collecting them later as well as face to face interviews so as to obtain the required information for the answers to the questions in the questionnaires. The latter method has already been implemented and found to be effective for such a study amongst the children with hearing impairments. An interpreter may be used to ensure that the right information is obtained from the subjects (Groce 1988).
In addition, questionnaires are the best tool for collection of the required data as they are easier to administer and provide all the expected and required information. Respondents also find questionnaires more convenient for them. Since the target population will be the different parties involved in the program of integrating children with hearing impairments into the mainstream schools, the respondents will have time to respond to the questions and hence such a method will be more effective. The data collected from the sample using questionnaires will be first-hand and hence more reliable. The sample determined will be perceived as the best representation of the target population, though considered using non-probability sampling techniques. The data may hence not be generalized for the whole population but will be a good representation for the most important aspects of the study objectives. The data will hence help in provision of important the different parties involved in the program being focused on (Lane 1984).
A total of 600 questionnaires will be used for the research. The main distribution of the questionnaire administration will be:
- 350 children with hearing impairments in mainstream schools
- 150 Normal children in classes with children with hearing impairments
- 50 Teachers in mainstream schools with children with hearing impairments
- 40 Parents of children with hearing impairments in the mainstream schools
- Officials from the education department
The questionnaire for the study will include different sections, each of which will be relevant to a given category of the subjects. The subjects will only be requested to fill in the sections relevant to their category.
The questionnaire survey method will be used for the study.
Different methods will be used to determine if the research is valid, especially in the aspect of the research questions, the hypothesis as well as the data aimed at being collected using the questionnaires. The initial method that will be used to determine the validity of the study will be the face validity method that will ensure that all the questions that will be included in the questionnaire are valid and will provide required information.
Content validity method will then be used to determine if the research covers all the required areas so as to meet with the research objectives.
Internal validity will be tested using statistical methods so as to determine the validity of the study with a concern on whether the results of the study can be manipulated. Further, external validity will be ensured through increasing the sample size, ensuring that the sampling method used obtains unbiased data (Kuehl 1999).
The test-retest method as well as the test of internal consistency for the results obtained from the questionnaires will be used to determine the reliability of the questions that will be used for the survey. This will be done using statistical methods and will ensure that the information obtained from the study is reliable.
The data obtained from the questionnaires will be coded into the different levels of variable measurements and then entered into a software, initially into excel, so as to be in the format that may be analyzed using statistical tools so as to obtain results that will be used to make conclusions and answer the research questions (Kuehl 1999).
Different scales will be obtained for the different variables that will be included in the questionnaires. Most of the variables will be on a levels scale while others will be in the numerical format, such as the age and number of children in a school or class (Stinson & Liu-Yufang 1999; Stinson & Liu-Yufang 1999).
The research will experience a lot of difficulties and challenges that will limit it in a great way. First, collection of primary data will imply physical presence of the researcher, which is very expensive and time consuming. Data will have to be collected using great care so as to avoid biasness in choice of sample and in responses received from respondents, a fact that may lead to collection of wrong data and result in making of misleading conclusions (Higgins 1990). Also, there will be a limitation in the available resources and time and hence the study may not be able to effectively cover the required scope. However, the study will be designed in such a manner that it seeks to obtain a sample that will represent the target population in the best way possible. This will help in reducing the expenses in the study as well as ensuring that the data obtained provides the most accurate and the best information required for the study (Myers, Well & Lorch 2010).
The other challenge for the study will be the physical location of the different schools to be considered as target areas. The schools are found in different locations within the region making access to all of them quite expensive.
The data obtained from the subjects through questionnaires will first be coded and entered into MS-Excel so as to be in a format that may be analyzed using statistical software. The SPSS statistical software, which is one of the best statistical software for analyzing data in a social research, will be utilized for analyzing the data in this study. This method is bound to provide results that may be easily interpreted to answer the research questions and hence come up with conclusions consistent to the research objectives (Kuehl 1999).
The study is expected to provide information on the main challenges that are experienced by the different stakeholders in the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream primary schools. This information will be very important as it will help in formulating recommendations on the main ways of addressing the challenges so as to ensure that the program is effective and beneficial to the society (Maurer & Smith 2009; Wilson 1998).
After the analysis of the data obtained from the questionnaires using the SPSS statistical software, the obtained results will be discussed so as to come up with conclusions for the study (Triola 2009). These conclusions will provide answers for the research questions and will also be used to either accept or reject the hypothesis of the study. In addition, the conclusions obtained from the study will be used to come up with recommendations on the most effective strategies to apply in the integration of children with hearing impairments into mainstream schools so as to overcome the main challenges experienced by the different stakeholders (Myers, Well & Lorch 2010).
|Questionnaire preparation and administration||$1500|
|Data Coding & Entry||$100|
|Consultative meetings with supervisors||$200|
|Report writing and analysis||$350|
|Miscellaneous expenditure||$ 100|
TOTAL $ 2,600
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