Part A: Very clear extensive explanation of the nursing competency domain ‘Critical Thinking and Analysis” NMBA (nursing midwifery board Australia 2006)
Nursing, like most of other professions, require competency in culturally diverse backgrounds to ensure that no individual is left out in provision of quality health care. The writer is categorical that there is scantiness of evidence to link patient, professional and organizational outcomes with cultural competence education (Saurabhet al., 2012, p.4).
These critical thinking and analysis competencies include self-appraisal, professional development, value of evidence-based research, and frequent reflection on the practice, beliefs and feelings. All these competencies must be evaluated in relation to their consequences to the services rendered to individual groups and the set professional benchmark. Such critical thinking and analysis will enable registered nurses to evaluate their skills regularly and improve in the areas they are not doing well. They are also able to participate in professional development through seeking additional knowledge and engaging their colleagues in discussing the implications of research in the nursing practice (NMBA 2006, p.4).
Part B: Very clear extensive explanation of how reflection develops competence in nursing practice.
Nursing requires continuous self-appraisal to check the viability of the practices one applies in the career. Self-reflection on feelings, beliefs and their consequences are an important yardstick for professional practice in nursing. (Sue et al., 201, p.2) It helps to identify potential areas to improve on as well identify problems that could be handled through research.
A nurse is able to practice within an environment that is supported by evidence gathered through research. Comparison of research outcomes with other colleagues improves confidence in practice as well as professional ethics and code of conduct (Lynneet al., 2019, p. 72). Quality improvement is assured since nurses participate in research and identify issues fit to be researched on.
Section 2: Reflection on learning
Part A: Accurate well detailed explanation of how my knowledge, feelings, attitudes and/or beliefs around cultural understanding and competence have developed during the workshop.
My knowledge has broadened because I learned to understand the different cultures in Australia. My experience in Australia has been one of a kind. My career has moved to new level owing to the vast technological advancement that Australia has enjoyed in the field of nursing (Foxcroft et al., 2014, p. 2). Their various cultures helped me to gain practical knowledge on how to handle various complications while preserving the cultural diversities thereof. I learned how to interact with different cultures
My feelings during the “stereotype” role play changed towards other people as I am now more accepting of other cultures. I was really a conservative kind of person until I interacted with various diverse cultures. I used to live my life alone and only interacted with those whom we shared common cultures. However, after my interaction with the Australian culture, I can work and relate with anyone of any culture.
A lecturer described the cultures as a sald bowl mixture of salad
I think the reason why this lecturer described the cultures as bowl mixture of salad is because they form the ultimate complete nation of Australia. I am of the opinion that diverse cultures contribute to holding a nation together when handled in the right manner. Cultures may be misused to cause disharmony.
After watching the video of the aboriginals’ life the way they live in poverty and no sanitation the stolen generation changed my attitude and beliefs towards these people.
The Aboriginals live as a forgotten lot of people. They live in abject poverty with no one to come to their aid (Lynneet al., 2009, p. 66). I heard this statement from one of my fellow staffs, but I could hardly believe, until I watched their lifestyle via a video shared to me. Their latrines are nowhere to be found, meaning that they use the bushes or buckets. I was moved to tears as I imagined how a new born survives the punishment of growing in such a set up.
Part B: Extensive explanation of how my knowledge and understanding has developed in relation to Concepts of health, Determinants of health, the Australian health care system and Primary health care
Concepts of Health (in terms of Australia)
Australian health care system is complex system comprising of multiple organisational structures, providers, services and providers. My knowledge has developed to enable to know that primary health care in Australia is normally delivered in various settings which include general practices, community and aboriginal controlled health services, allied health services and community health services. Secondly care is also part of the larger health care system that involves provision of specialised care upon referral by a physician in the primary health care (Lynneet al., 2009, p. 72). As a registered nurse, I will be able to fit in the primary care network that is established across the country to facilitate coordination and collaboration among health care providers. I have also been equipped with knowledge on the emerging models of care such as telehealth and electronic health records that are in the Australian health care system.
Determinants of Health
- Social determinants of health inequity on indigenous (aboriginals) vs. non indigenous Australians (other Australian population);
I have learnt that there exist differences in the level of health care accessibility between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians (Lidia et al., 2014, p. 2). Most of the health care services are not user friendly and accessible to indigenous people compared to non-indigenous people due to fewer indigenous health staffs, living in remote areas among other factors.
- Social determinants of Indigenous health stolen generation, stolen land; finances and health(Explain about aboriginals in general how my knowledge and understanding developed when their land was taken their children etc) Remember Medicare is free
Indigenous were affected by were affected by the act since it limited their ability to acquired good education, jobs and adequate money. The move took them away from their families and friends, and still feels socially insecure (McCabe&Elodie, 2009, p.82). These factors have limited their ability to access good health care compared to non-indigenous.
- Natural environment also impact of global warming on Australia and world
Health and natural environment and what global warming does to things affecting
I have been able to understand that global environment challenges such as global warming affect a peoples’ health status. Global warming is a calamity that has led to unthinkable damage since it has led to climatic change that affects people’s health. There is a predicted rise in sea levels worldwide due to the melt down of two massive ice sheets in Antarctica and Green land (Miranda, 2010, p. 2). As a registered I will participate in looking for medical solution for healthy problems related to global warming since it may pose a great health challenge the Australians in the near future.
The Australian Health Care Systems and global
My exposure on the Australian Health Care system has been very beneficial since it enables me to compare it with other health care system in the world (Andrew et al., 2014, p.401). Despite increased complain on the high cost of health care in Australia, the country health spending is better compared to other countries such as US, Netherlands, Sweden among others that have highest health budget in the world.
Primary Health Care Australia
A large percent of health budget in Australia goes to the provision of primary care and particular in the treatment of increased cases of chronic diseases. The introduction of Enhanced Primary Care and more chronic disease management items seeks to persuade a better approach towards management of chronic illnesses (Foster et al., 2007, p.3). However, some concerns have been raised on the general ability of the said initiatives neither to promote equity in allied health care delivery nor to improve outcomes of various patients (Shiraz et al., 2012, p.3).. It is also an unknown factor as to whether the initiatives are economical to all since not all patients belong to the same social class in terms of financial muscle. The government therefore needs to ensure that all and sundry are keenly taken care of in provision of primary health care so as not to neglect majority of the population
Andrew, B, Simon, CB, Towler, Robyn, S .& Lyn M 2014. “Models of care for musculoskeletal health in Australia: now more than ever to drive evidence into health policy and practice”, Australian Health Reviewvol 38, no.4, pp.401-405.
Chang, A, Taylor, B, Masters, IB, Laifoo, Y, &Brown, AD 2012, “Indigenous healthcare worker involvement for Indigenous adults and children with asthma”, Cochrane Database Systems Reviews,Vol 2, no.5, pp1-5.
Foster, T, Taylor, S &Flemming, J, 2007, “Health care practice in Australia, policy, context, innovation.Health services administration”, pp.1-4.
Foxcroft, D, Maria,T, Nerissa, M, & Lesley, A 2014, “Social norms information for alcohol misuse in university and college students”, Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Vol 1 pp. 1-3.
Jia, L, Yuan, B, Huang, F, Lu, Y, Garner, P, &Meng 2014, “Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations”, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Vol 11, pp. 1-5.
Lidia, H,Horey, D, Romios, P &Kis-Rigo J, 2014, “Cultural competence education for health professionals”, Cochrane Database Syst Rev.,pp 1-3.
Lynne, C, Halbert, JA, Gray, LC, Cameron, ID &Crotty, M 2009, “The distribution of health services for older people in Australia: where does transition care fit?” Aust Health Rev, vol. 33, no.4, pp.572-82.
McCabe, MP, &Elodie J 2009, “The Economic Impact of Progressive Neurological Illness”, JFam Econ, Vol 31, pp. 82-89.
Miranda, L 2010, “Substitution of doctors by nurses in primary care, Quality of Life in Australia”, Nursing journal,Vol 2 no.5pp 1-4.
National competency standards for the registered nurse 2006, Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, pp.1-11.
Saurabh, G, Carmichael, C, Simpson, C, Clarke, MJ, Allen, C, Gao, Y, &Chan, EY 2012, “Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves” Cochrane Database Syst Rev.,Vol 7, pp. 1-5.
Shiraz, M, Scherer, RW, Geigle, PM, Berlanstein, R &Topaloglu, O 2012, “Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors”, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Vol.8, pp. 1-4.
Sue, H, Kolliakou, A, Petkova, H, &Froggatt, K 2011, “Interventions for improving palliative care for older people living in nursing care homes”, Cochrane Database Syst Rev.Vol 16 no.3 pp.1-4.