Personality study is the most interesting topic in psychology. There are several personality theories that exist, these personalities’ attempts to illustrate distinct patterns in personality, for instance how the patterns appear and how people differ on an individual level. Freud and Rogers are the major developer of personality psychological theories however; different psychologists use Freud’s and Rogers theories to develop solutions to psychological problems.
Freud’s Psychoanalysis theory in psychology
Psychoanalysis theory was found by Sigmund Freud a psychologist who believed that people ought to be healed by making their unconscious motivations and thoughts to be conscious and therefore gaining insight. The main aim of performing psychoanalysis therapy is to let go repressed experiences and emotions thus creating the unconscious to be conscious. Psychoanalysis commonly treats anxiety and depression disorders. Having a patient should create a cathartic experience in order for him to be helped and healed. The Psychoanalytic Perspective of personality emphasizes on the necessity of early child hood understanding and unconscious mind. Freud believes things that are hidden in the unconscious can be revealed through free association, slips of tongue and dreams. Neo-Freudian theorists, include, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Karen Horney and Carl Jung, who believes in the significance of the unconscious, but disagreed with other features of Freud’s theories (Mc Leod, 2007)
The humanistic perspective of personality concerns on personal awareness, free will and psychological growth. It demands a more positive attitude on human nature and is focused on how an individual can achieve their potential. The trait perspective of personality is focused on describing, identifying and measuring the particular traits that compose human personality. By accepting these traits, they can better understand the distinction between individuals.
In the article Falk Leichsenring a psychologist suggests that short term psychotherapy is not adequate for most patients with personality disorder/ chronic distress. He aims to examine the relative efficiency of (LTPP) long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders. He realizes that Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapies are less intensive form of psychotherapy in mental disorder and fail to promote a culture of organized assessment and the results are complex to demonstrate and measure. A growing body of researchers report that psychodynamic therapy is successful in the healing of both complex and mild mental health issues. For instance a meta-analysis found considerable outcome ranges in randomized restricted assessments of long term psychodynamic psychotherapy.
Rogerian Theory in Psychotherapy
Rogerian theory in psychology is also called as a person-centered therapy. It is based on Carl Rogers’s theories. Rogers believed that everyone is fundamentally superior and desire to attain mental health. He theorized that one is aggravated by an actualizing propensity, the force that drives us to attain our maximum physically, emotionally and spiritually prospective. When any of these are suppressed, they bring about emotional pain and suffering. In The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, many women diagnosed with a breast cancer may be difficult to initiate life in them. The national Cancer institute shows that out of 10million cancer survivors 25% are breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors have completed their treatment and have been diagnosed for 5 years. The survivors are advised to participate and accept their changing life. It is vital for one to be aware of what is taking place in them and what his choices and options are so one can knowingly contribute in making decisions and changes related to health and new life-style in one’s situation (Arlene T, 2010)
The purpose of this study is to illustrate a secondary analysis of power in a sample of breast cancer survivors within the complete stage of survivorship. The results are obtainable and conferred in relation to Barrett’s theory power and literature. Conclusions for research, theory and practice are obtainable. Power is the ability to participate in the personality of modifying the characteristics of the continuous patterning of the human and environmental fields. Power is freedom and power is control. Studying power theory provides evidence for Rogerian based health patterning performance. The researcher did a secondary analysis to identify the introduction of data regarding normative ranges from low, moderate, and high intensity frequency, power scores and form in which the stage of breast cancer survivorship extended in women.
The key factors that arouse human growth that enhances one to gravitate toward a constructive fulfillment of potential which are: There must be a distinctive and familiar relationship between the client and the therapist which must be validated by both parties. The client vulnerability to anxieties and fears keep them from leaving a situation but, there is clear indication of incongruence between the actual experience and what a client knows and expects. The therapist genuineness is in the interest of the client’s recovery and may admit their own experiences as an aid in the recovery process. The element of unconditional positive regard provides a platform of sincerity and acceptance, a client may begin to dismiss their distorted perceptions of themselves that they collect from others. The client feels true compassion from the therapist with considerations to their interior perception and construct. Empathic understanding helps to reinforce the feeling of unconditional love. The client’s percepts and acknowledges completion of empathic acceptance and unconditional positive regard (Arlene T, 2010)
Social and cultural factors influencing the development of Freud’s and Rogers’
A main separation of these theories was centered on personality: how one’s personality was influenced and made by biological forces around the person. It is vital to understand that Freud’s theories have no strong backing within its empirical evidence. However, the theories provide an exciting framework for study. In psychology there has been a debate on the factors that influence personality development. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory tries to elaborate on personality by centering on unconscious behavior determinants. The main argument of Freud’s theory is that unconscious experiences and motives in early childhood rule personality development. Watson a psychologist studied on the effects of environment on the obvious behaviors of animals and humans He and other psychologists of the period believed that the observable events are the only ones that were to be studied scientifically. He believed that personal development was strongly associated with an individual’s environment (Arlene T, 2010).
Carl Rogers observed the unique features of human experience. He based his work on the belief of human’s freeness, balanced beings with the possibility for individual growth, and they are essentially dissimilar from animals. Rogers’s theory suggests that human personality is ruled by each one’s self-concept. Watson, Freud and Rogers had unlike judgments on personality determinants; however one viewpoint cannot entirely clarify how personality is developed.
These Theories explains about human behavior and the environment playing a major role in determining personality development. Generally, the unconscious influences the development of personality and an individual behavior. In addition humans have free will and not all behavior is determined by unconscious and environmental drives. There are several themes that characterize psychology as a field of study. One theme is that psychology is empirical. Psychology is empirical and this means that its conclusions are supported on direct observation rather than on speculation, reasoning, common sense and traditional beliefs. Psychologists perform research in order to test their hypothesis and ideas about behavior and create theory to back up their findings
Arlene, T. (2010). Power in breast cancer survivor: a secondary analysis. . (Report)The Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science 17(1), Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-271975598.html
Mc Leod, S. A. (2007). Psychoanalysis. Simply psychology, Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychoanalysis.html
Leichsenring, F. (2011). Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: update of a meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 15(22), doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.082776