Air Pollution Caused by East Cement Company in Saudi Arabia

Part I:    Local Air Issues

The sources of the mainly noteworthy air pollution where I have formerly existed originated from the Eastern Cement Company situated within the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The firm is established mainly to manufacture Cement and Clinker to take care of the requirement of local marketplace, Middle East and excess to global markets. The Company started commercial manufacturing in 1985 and consistent with records, the generation that year arrived at 862,605 tons of cement and at 1,449,442 tons of clinker (Eastern Cement Company, 2016). Within the subsequent years, production increased and successful 1994, the Clinker manufacturing arrived at 2,300,000 tons, surpassing the installed capability of 2,200,000 M Tons. The company attained a record clinker manufacturing of 2,357,423 tons during 1995 that is 12.26% above the nominal capability. The cement section is the third biggest industrial basis of contamination, releasing over 500,000 tons for every year of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide (EPA, 2016).

Frankly speaking, here within Saudi Arabia, specifically within the Eastern Province where the majority of the oil and gas searching, drilling and manufacture, cement and clinker production are happening, we do not have such quality of air monitoring curriculum that can check the release of aforesaid pollutants. Instead, I can guarantee you that the worse is taking place! The Eastern Cement Company at night seems to capitalize on its manufacturing to the uppermost believing that natives would be less watchful. The tale not yet finished, the corporation avoids employing bag-filters in night time so as to limit their manufacturing price, increase their proceeds, and therefore eliminate their demand for altering these filters so regular.

Nevertheless, for the sake of this inquiry, I am going to employ the instance found within the United State. Like it has been accounted by EPA (2016), in the present day, levels of contamination in many parts of the United States surpass nationwide standards of air quality for at slightest one of the six widespread contaminants. EPA is assisting states to satisfy standards for universal pollutants by giving federal discharge standards for nationwide emissions criterions for classes of fresh industrial tools (e.g., cement production). Moreover, EPA (2016) heartens and promotes region-wide air toxics policies of tribal, state, and regional agencies through nationwide, regional and society-based schemes. Amid these projects is Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) Program. The CARE curriculum assists communities build up broad-founded local affiliations (that comprise business and local administration) and carry out community-driven trouble solving because they build capability to comprehend and take efficient measures on handling ecological problems (2016).

Thad Godish (2004) clarified that saturations of air contaminant are established through gathering pollutants in or on a modeling medium or in computerized constant systems, in which they are drawn by a sensing tool. Within manual techniques, sampling and scrutiny are separate procedures, with model analysis happening days to weeks following collection. Manual gathering of gas-phase materials might be carried out by using the standards of absorption, concentration, adsorption, or capture. Out of these, absorption has been the mainly broadly employed. It entails drawing polluted air by a fluid reagent. The pollutant is gathered while it liquefies within the absorbing reagent held in an impinger or bubbler. In a computerized mechanism, sampling and scrutiny are concurrent or near-simultaneous actions and concentrations are determined within real time. Within manual techniques, an adequate amount of contaminant should be gathered to meet the lower limit of discovery (LOD) necessities of the diagnostic process used. This amount will rely on the atmospheric absorption and model size (the quantity of air that goes through or comes in touch with the modeling medium). Rates of sampling for individual contaminants employing manual techniques reflect gathering efficiencies and tool restriction. For gases, gathering efficiency declines as rates of flow increases more than the optimal value (2004).

Godish (2004) demonstrated to us that in constant real-time modeling, the diagnostic method is normally responsive enough that the model size or quantity required to precisely notice and measure particular pollutants is comparatively small (milliliters). Modeling might be carried out through passive, irregular, or continuous processes. On account of low price and user-friendliness, passive sampling methods  were broadly acknowledged and employed methodology for individual exposure checking within occupational settings, determination of indoor air pollutants like formaldehyde (HCHO) and radon (Rn), and quality of air and health exploration studies. Such devices for sampling comprise small bade-type tools, canisters, tubes, etc (2004).

Within grab modeling, sample of air are gathered within a comparatively short duration (seconds or minutes) by means of a diversity of tools. Normally, grab sampling is employed in problem settings (e.g., chemical spills) as a way of detecting contaminants and their intensities present at the moment model were gathered. Grab modeling employing evacuated canisters for gathering and detection of explosive organic compounds (VOCs) is a vital element of photochemical Assessment Monitoring stations (PAMS) system actions (2004).
Irregular sampling employing dynamic modeling means came into prevalent employ in air quality inspecting networks within the U.S. during the 1950s-1970s, both for PM and gases like SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NO2). Constant monitoring tools offer immediate sampling outcomes. Since data are obtained within actual time, constant monitors are the networks of selection within air quality inspecting programs. Their main drawbacks are high capital tools and system preservation expenses (2004).

Ringquist (1995) showed that stronger condition air quality systems generated greater decreases during nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide emissions. Although the outcomes are extraordinary, all of this study has inspected the efficiency of regulation in decreasing approximated air contaminant discharge levels. However, levels of emission are not similar to as air quality. Inhabitants do not gasp approximated emissions; they breathe real saturations of atmospheric contaminants. This is the reason the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are dependent on contaminant concentrations, instead of on contaminant emissions. If we desire to establish whether contamination control rules have essentially enhanced quality of air, our dependent changeable should be actual levels of contaminant concentration, not approximated release figures. The association between emissions of pollutant and atmospheric concentrations of contaminants is based upon heat and heat inversions, humidity, sunlight, wind patterns, local topographic aspects, and diverse other aspects.

Eastern Cement Company. (2016, October 5). Eastern Cement Company.
Retrieved October 4, 2016, from
EPA. (2016, July 12). Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges | Overview of the
Clean Air Act and Air Pollution | US EPA. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from
EPA. (2017, August 17). Cement Manufacturing Enforcement Initiative | Enforcement | US
EPA. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from
Godish, T. (2004). Air quality (4th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC/Lewis Publishers.

Ringquist, E. J. (1995). Is “Effective Regulation” Always Oxymoronic?: The States and Ambient
Air Quality. Social Science Quarterly (University Of Texas Press), 76(1), 69-87.

Part II       

Offshore Drilling

According to Thomas Easton (2013), Randall Luthi, administrator of the sector’s Minerals Management Service that deals with offshore oilfield rules and leases, stated, “The technology has enhanced . . . the security systems we currently need have significantly enhanced . . . and the business has a good proof.” In accordance with Luthi, novel devices like state-of-the-art computers that create investigation simpler and tougher building substances on mediums are rendering offshore drilling securer. Directional drilling and Seismic technology methods allow oil firms drill 100 investigative wells from a solitary offshore podium, decreasing the amount of derricks and thus the likelihood for troubles. Novel drilling technologies and the business’s track evidence within the Gulf of Mexico demonstrate that drilling for oil offshore is securer than it before, confirming that we can drill and yet be ecologically responsive.

The insist for power is increasing, not downward, and for a long duration, even as substitute bases of power are developed, extra oil will be required. The strongest claim in opposition to drilling is that it might distract the nation from the hunt for alternative energy sources. The U.S. cannot drill its means to power autonomy. The U.S. can no more afford to turn its back on discovering the entire the bases of fuel essential to uphold its financial system and living standards. What is needed is a long-standing, all-inclusive plan that comprises wind, biofuels, solar geothermal, and nuclear – and that accepts that oil and gas will be influential to the United States’ welfare for numerous years waiting (2013).

Anthony Leiserowitz (2005) highlighted that public threat perceptions are decisive elements of the socio-political background in which policy creators function. Public threat views can basically force or limit political, financial and social activity to deal with specific threats. For instance, public support or resistance to climate strategies (e.g., treaties, rules, taxes, grants, etc.) will be significantly impacted by public views of the risks and threats of worldwide climate change. Within this milieu, American public threat views of climate change are vital for at slightest two motives. Foremost, the United States, having simply 5% of the globes’ population (as mentioned within U.S. Census Bureau, 2005), is presently the world’s biggest discharger of carbon dioxide, unaided comprising almost 25% of worldwide emissions. Each person, Americans emits 5.40 metric tons of carbon every year.

Through comparison, the regular Japanese discharges 2.55 tons for every year, whereas the average Chinese discharges simply 0.60 and the standard Indian just 0.29 tons every year. Second, consecutive U.S. heads and congressional principals have been at odds with a great deal of the world society concerning the reality, gravity and necessity for dynamic measure on climate change. During, just before the Kyoto climate change meeting, the U.S. Senate approved a nonbinding decree co-sponsored by Robert Byrd (D) of West Virginia and Chuck Hagel (R) of Nebraska that requested the Clinton government to rebuff any accord that did not comprise emission restrictions for developing together with industrialized nations, claiming that to accomplish so would place the U.S. at a viable economic drawback. Moreover, during 2001 President George W. Bush relinquished a campaign promise to control carbon dioxide as a contaminant, removed the United States from the Kyoto Protocol talks, and projected national power legislation to boost drilling for oil and ordinary gas, mining for coal, and construct more than a thousand novel fossil-fuel burning energy firms plants (2005).

Consistent with Lee Lane (2016), as legitimate worries over oil safety have drawn back, worry over the surroundings has gained eminence within U.S. power policy. That the globe’s temperature is increasing appears beyond doubt, and a causal link between conservatory gases discharged through the employ of fossil fuels and worldwide warming simply creates sense. Growing concentrations of conservatory gases within the environment will, eventually, transform both global and some local climate mechanisms, even though we are distant from knowing precisely how. Several of these changes will possibly advantage society; a few will inflict expenses. The quicker atmosphere changes and the bigger the alterations are the further probable it turns out to be that net expenses will result (2016).

Conservationists have been stirring up for government activities on climate change for some duration, and lately a few oil corporations have started to reverberate these calls. For instance, the CEO of Royal Dutch Shell, a big, EU-headquartered power corporation, ordered the oil business to promote strategies that would place a cost on carbon releases. A small number of center-right U.S. think tanks — the business’s natural associates on drilling — have as well voiced promotion for a carbon tax or comparable policy device. Besides, several upstream oil and gas companies have concurred with several “moderate” green teams on regulations overriding tight-oil and gas drilling behaviors (2016).
Several industry actors might consider that the political and public relations benefits that may be created from striking good deals with “reasonable” green teams are worth the expenses. In the business, views vary on the carefulness of such agreements; the advantages, no doubt, differ from case to case. However, in reality, from the point of view of good public strategy, there is little motive for the business to acknowledge the limits that the political left is suggesting. Limiting tight-oil removal, the ecological movement’s principal demand would slow conservatory-gas releases barely at all (2016).

The International Energy Agency approximates that oil employ leads to around 35% of worldwide fuel-linked carbon-dioxide discharges, and within 2013, U.S. tight oil was around 4.3% of planet crude-oil production. As a result, had the entire U.S. tight-oil production been stopped immediately and not been substituted by any other basis — both extremely improbable suppositions — the outcome would have decreased worldwide carbon-dioxide discharges by all of 1.5%. For standpoint, during 2013, worldwide energy-related conservatory-gas emissions, in accordance with BP’s power statistics, increased by 2.1%. Therefore, the growth in worldwide discharges would have revoked the savings from finishing all U.S. tight-oil production in under nine months (2016).

Easton, T. A. (2013). Taking sides, Clashing Views on Environmental Issues (15th ed.). New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lane, L. (2016). The New Politics of Oil Abundance > Publications > National Affairs.
Retrieved October 4, 2016, from
Leiserowitz, A. (2005, April 21). Climate Change Risk Perception and Policy Preferences: The
Role of Affect, Imagery, and Values. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from